Fatigue, feeling of heaviness in the legs, mild tissue edema, swelling of the veins and the first visible "network of blood vessels" may indicate the development of varicose veins. below.
The statistics for this disease are very serious. For example, in a single country, about 37 million people have the disease. One in six of them is a girl under 12 years old. The early onset of such a disease will greatly increase the risk of complications, which when ignored will threaten disability and even death.
What is terrible about varicose veins? Why is it so important to prevent its development in its early stages? Regarding treatment methods, preventive measures from the opinion of specialists, as well as a lot of other useful information about varicose veins of the lower extremities, read this article.
What is varicose veins of the lower extremities?
All veins in the human body are divided into deep, superficial and perforated. The deep vessels do almost everything (90%) carry blood to the heart, and the turbid vessels are a kind of bridge between the deep and the surface. The structure of the veins provides the presence of steering valves and promotes the flow of blood in just the right direction. When the circulatory system fails, a certain amount of blood accumulates at one point. This leads to a local expansion (elongation) of the vessel. The first to suffer are deep veins (the so-called varicose veins inside), then superficially in the form of "spider veins and nodes".
To be fully aware of the severity of the disease, it should be noted that its progression threatens the development of thrombophlebitis, obstruction of the pulmonary artery with thrombosis (or thrombosis), as well as trophic ulcers of the legs, lymphatic disease (edema of the lower extremities) and many other problems that can lead to the patient's death.
The main causes of varicose veins of lower extremities
Many factors can cause a breakdown of blood vessel activity, general blood flow, and then provoke the appearance of varicose veins of the superficial veins of the lower extremities. Consider the main things:
- Congenital pathology of the valves within the venous veins - it can be hereditary. According to statistics, 2/3 of patients have a relative with the same disease.
- Insufficient mobility relieves stress on soft tissues. As a result, the load on the blood vessels decreases, their tone.
- In the "standing" position, the pressure inside the leg vessels increases tenfold. With a long longitudinal arrangement, the valves cannot cope with the increased load, which leads to a violation of their function.
- Decreased vascular tone - possibly due to age changes, loss of elasticity of the vessel walls after some diseases.
- Pregnancy - this stage is characterized by an increase in the amount of blood in the woman's body, as well as the hormones progesterone, estrogen. Together, these changes provoke the development of varicose veins of the lower extremities. Indeed, normalization of the processes can occur about 1 year after childbirth, if complications of varicose veins do not arise.
Overweight, the presence of trauma, previous activity, hormonal disorders and the use of contraception complement the list of reasons for the development of the disease.
Determination of varicose veins of the lower extremities - symptoms and diagnosis
The effectiveness of treatment, the speed of giving a satisfactory result largely depends on the accuracy and timeliness of the diagnosis of the disease.
Signs of varicose veins of lower limbs will help identify disease in the early stage:
- slight swelling of the legs;
- swelling of superficial veins, increasing in diameter;
- itching of the lower extremities accompanied by varicose veins;
- feeling overworked, heavy;
- burning, pain due to excessive tension of the venous walls;
- limb cramps;
- discernible blue skin along the veins, compaction (hardening) of problem tissue, formation of lower limb varicose eczema.
Even a slight violation of skin integrity at the site of eczema can lead to the appearance of trophic ulcers.
In variations of deep lower extremities varicose veins, symptoms can appear at a later stage, which is undesirable. Therefore, if you have any doubts about the disease, you should consult your doctor.
Diagnosis of varicose veins of lower extremities is done with special equipment. Such a study is safe, painless and allows you to fully study the severity of the disease.
There are several diagnostic options:
- visual inspection;
- parallel color test method - blood flow map compiled during the study allows one to judge the direction and speed of blood movement through the veins. The procedure informs about the condition of the blood vessels, which is very important to predict the development of varicose veins; Phlebography
- - it is very rarely used, as it involves X-ray inspection
During the diagnosis, you can observe the state of blood vessels and valves, analyze their function and determine the direction of blood flow.
In general, the first reason to see a doctor is for cosmetic changes. From the first, they are harmless, they can develop into serious diseases and complications. Therefore, you should not ignore their importance.
Classification of lower limb venous insufficiency
Doctors often distinguish 5 stages of varicose veins of lower extremities, each with its own symptoms:
- Stage 1- reticular varicose veins of the lower extremities, this is the easiest disease to treat. It is distinguished by the presence of a "network of blood vessels". Dilated veins are visible through thin layers of skin (especially in the fossa below the knee), pain has not yet arisen.
- Stage 2- varicose veins of the lower extremities, accompanied by slight fatigue, a feeling of heaviness in the legs, even twitching of the calf muscles, possible slight swelling of the veins;
- Stage 3- prominent veins on the skin, especially inside the lower legs, thin skin with dark brown spots, itching, rash, signs of dermatitis. The swelling became more and more uncomfortable when moving.
- Stage 4 varicose veins- symptoms are evident, complications of the disease appear, such as thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcer manifestations. Varicose veins appear strongly through thin skin in the legs, feet, and thighs.
- Stage 5- has all stage 4 symptoms. In addition, progression to the groin area. The number of nutritional ulcers is increasing rapidly, as is the frequency of thrombophlebitis crises. The doctor identifies varicose veins of the lower extremities at this stage.
The main task of both the patient and their physician is to prevent the development of the disease from going beyond its initial stage, and the earlier you contact the vein doctor, the easier it will be to end.
Treatment of varicose veins of lower extremities
Medicine does not stand still but develops the latest technologies to combat venous disease. Treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities can be done with conservative methods (medications, minimally invasive procedures), surgery, home treatment combined with massage.
Declining the appeal of your looks isn't the whole list of possible troubles. Complications and defects may add to it. Modern medicine offers a wide range of non-surgical effects on problem areas, and often physical therapy for varicose veins of the lower extremities is most effective in the early stages of the disease:
- The use of cream, gel, and ointment preparations for varicose veins of the lower extremities, these drugs provide a noticeable relief. They are easy to apply to the surface, causing no pain and discomfort.
- The use of drugs for muscle healing - drug in the case of varicose veins of the lower extremities, normalizes the activity of the veins.
- Laser exposure - endothelial laser venous burning (ELOV) is widely used in the fight against varicose veins. The principle of the procedure is to shut down the problem vein from the effect of the heat ray on it. Laser manipulations are performed under local anesthesia, with no need to restrict manipulation and additional hospital stay. The patient has the right to go home immediately after the procedure.
- Acupuncture therapy for varicose veins of the lower extremities is a modern adjunct method that promotes blood thinning, stimulates blood circulation and thereby, removes toxins from tissues and saturation. they are equal to oxygen.
- RF Exposure - RF works like a laser. They exclude problem vessels from the vascular system, thereby eliminating the risk of possible complications;
- Therapeutic therapy - involves inserting a special drug into a diseased vein, assisting in the bonding of the vessel walls and elimination of the vessel itself over time.
It is important to note that a preliminary consultation with a doctor and special examination is required.
Surgical varicose veins of the lower extremities
Late visit to the doctor, neglect of a disease that leads to CVI (chronic venous insufficiency) and the inability to overcome minimally invasive therapy. In such cases, surgery comes to the rescue.
The following factors are considered indicative of surgery for varicose veins of lower extremities:
- the disease is in the advanced stage, when nutritional ulcers manifest gradually;
- develops thrombophlebitis;
- discomfort associated with excessive fatigue, leg edema.
The principle of surgical interventions, like conservation techniques, is based on removing the problematic vein from the circulatory system. Only in minimally invasive methods, blood vessels are glued together, and during surgery they are tied on both sides and removed.
There are several main surgical methods to treat varicose veins of the lower extremities:
- Bladder resectionis a classic variant of surgery. Small incisions (up to 5 mm) are made on the skin, through which a probe is inserted and the diseased vein is removed. This process should not exceed two hours and does not require long hospital stay.
- Small hole cutting- differs from classical cutting in the size of a hole in the skin. In this case, these are minimal punctures that minimize the recovery time and leave no marks on the body.
- Shortcut- requests the exact location of the problem area. Only the affected segment is deleted. There is no trace left after the procedure.
- Intravenous dissectionunder the control of high optical equipment. It is injected directly into a diseased vein, the operation is performed through a monitor. The experience and qualifications of the surgeon increase the likelihood of surgery success.
Surgery solves the venous pain problem, reduces the risk of developing the disease and provides relief in the later stages of symptoms. In compression lingerie, the venotonic drug is the main condition for the rehabilitation phase. They contribute to early recovery, normalize blood circulation.
Treatment of varicose veins of lower extremities with folk remedies
Home remedies have a distinct place in the treatment of venous insufficiency of the lower extremities. There was no need to assert their great importance, but there was nothing to underestimate their dignity. Cooked decoctions, injections, and compresses are effective in relieving pain, reducing the feeling of heaviness and fatigue after a hard day.
As a treatment option for reticular varicose veins, traditional medicine recommends soaking linden root wine in red wine for internal use. There are also recipes for rubbing the outside.
The unopened birch buds were infused for 10 days with 0. 5 liters of vodka. When ready, the product is rubbed into the skin.
Useful compresses for varicose veins of lower extremities from yogurt with garlic or wrapped with fresh cabbage leaves.
You shouldn't expect superfast results. This amount is suitable for the prevention and treatment of primary varicose veins of the lower extremities, along with drugs prescribed by a doctor. Do not use any of these treatments without first talking to your doctor.
Massage and exercise to treat varicose veins of lower extremities
The healing properties of massage have been known to mankind for a long time. Massaging the lower extremities with varicose veins also has a beneficial effect. It enhances blood and lymph flow, normalizes venous pressure and initiates metabolic processes inside the tissues.
Very special massage technique. It is forbidden to touch the affected area of the vein in any possible way, only to touch its surroundings. Light pinching, wide gripping, and clawing are key techniques of the trick. Should combine massage with some exercises.
Exercises for varicose veins of the lower extremities include doing all the work:
- Warm up - two to three minutes you need to lie down and pull your legs up. They should rest on a wall or another hill, this location assures them complete relaxation.
- Exercise "Bicycle" - movements are like cycling. Indicates the position of the body "lying on its back".
- "Pulling" exercise - legs held up cross for at least one minute.
- Calf exercises - in a "supine" position, with one leg bent so that the knee reaches the chest. Work in the opposite direction, while massaging the problematic muscle. Repeat the procedure four times with each leg.
- Stand up. For three to five minutes, tiptoe up and down to the starting position.
- The complex of exercises or exercise therapy for varicose veins of the lower extremities ensures the effect of prevention and treatment to accelerate the flow of venous blood to the heart, increase vascular toneblood.
It is important that the doctor not only approves the exercise set for daily exercises, but also ensures that the patient performs them correctly, without adding additional stress to the pulse.
Prevention of varicose veins of lower extremities
It is better to prevent the problem than to cure it later! Experts unanimously recommend the following measures to prevent disease:
- Move more - this reduces the risk of blood and lymph congestion.
- Exercise regularly against varicose veins.
- Shoes should be comfortable, heels should not exceed four centimeters.
- Prolonged sun exposure does not work well on blood vessel walls, limiting time spent in hot baths.
- Prefer a contrast shower, it enhances blood circulation.
- Focuses on fresh vegetables, fruits, plant products. A special diet for people with varicose veins of the lower extremities is the "best friend" of health.
- Rehydrate your body with 2 liters of water a day.
- Eliminating fatigue, improper sitting or resting posture is the best prevention for lower extremity varicose veins.
Remember that lower extremity varicose veins is a progressive disease. From the painless "stars", it can develop into thrombophlebitis and trophic ulcers. The beauty, pain-free and heavy in the leg can be maintained by following the simple recommendations of the specialist. If you have any doubts about the disease, please consult a vein doctor promptly. Remember, varicose veins cannot be completely cured, but they can be prevented or minimized for further development. Be healthy!