Varicose or varicose veins, these formulas in the vein mean a pathology accompanied by a change, that is, deformation of the veins. The vessels that carry blood to the heart dilate, elongate, thin their walls and also disrupt the venous valves.
If early stage varicose veins are effectively treated with conservative methods, then progression to stages 2 and 3 can only be cured with surgery, drugs and other methods. can only prevent the progression of the pathology. This article will discuss the main surgical methods for the treatment of varicose veins, the peculiarities of their implementation, etc. v.
Indications for surgical intervention
The fact that at the first stage of the development of venous insufficiency, surgical intervention is very rare due to unnecessary, a very important factor is the indication for surgery. Decisions are based on data obtained during a detailed diagnosis of blood vessels, and made by the patient together with the doctor.
Surgeons have an obligation to inform the proposed risks of surgery, the timing and nuances of post-operative rehabilitation, and thereafter only performed with the consent ofpatient.
For the indications itself, surgery for varicose veins is necessary in such cases:
- Pathological dilatation and subsequent deformation of pure saphenous vein of second or greater severity.
- Extensive form of varicose veins, the disease affects not only the saphenous, but mainly the deep veins, or deformation of the veins extending to too many lower extremities.
- There is a serious circulatory disorder, accompanied by more severe blood stasis processes.
- Severe edema, intense pain syndrome, accompanied by distinct external (aesthetic) signs of varicose veins.
- Formation of trophic ulcers on the skin or subcutaneous hematoma due to impaired vascular integrity;
- Progression of the pathological process leads to obstruction of the veins and the development of an acute form of thrombophlebitis.
- Lack of positive motivation during conservative therapy, that is, when drugs and other methods of dealing with varicose veins are impotent.
Restrictions and contraindications to activity
Unfortunately, even with the development of severe forms of varicose veins, accompanied by serious clinical complications and conditions, surgery is not always possible.
There are a number of contraindications, if the possibility of surgical intervention cannot be completely ruled out, the operation should be postponed for a certain time:
- Ischemic heart disease - in this case a more complete examination is required.
- The same goes for grade 3 hypertension.
- Infectious and inflammatory processes are active in the body - before you have varicose surgery, you need to deal with the infection or eliminate the inflammation.
- 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy - for pregnant women, it is better to postpone all surgical procedures until the woman gives birth. The only exceptions are those that pose a serious risk to the life of the mother or baby, and surgery can help.
- Skin diseases in the surgical area to combat varicose veins. We are talking about eczema, various forms of dermatosis, etc. v.
- Of course, there are also certain age restrictions on seniors. In some cases, old age as well as concomitant diseases caused by old age increase the risk of complications after surgery or danger to the life of the person on the operating table.
Surgical interventions for varicose veins
However, on the basis of diagnosis and after examining the patient, the doctor definitely needs surgical intervention to still choose the most appropriate and effective method, depending on the degree of progression ofVaricose veins and a number of other factors. To understand what types of surgeries are and under what conditions they are performed, we will look at the surgical methods of treating varicose veins that are most effective.
Combination venous resection
A formal surgery is performed under general anesthesia and can take up to 2 hours, depending on the complexity of the task. Varicose veins can be used to treat early forms of varicose veins, but this method is often used in severe cases, when the disease has progressed seriously.
During surgery, the surgeon will make an incision up to 2 cm long for the ankle or 5 cm for a wider area such as the groin. Usually, these incisions are shallow, as mostly superficial veins are removed.
The principle of action is to regulate the catheterization of the vein with the subsequent resection of the varicose vein. Additionally, during surgery, the surgeon may repair venous valves to restore normal blood flow.
After the surgery is complete, the cosmetic suture will be stitched into the incision, bandaged and elastic into the surgical area to prevent bleeding.
Cut small bags
In this procedure, removal of the affected area of the vein is also performed, however, the smaller the scale of the surgery, it can be considered purely cosmetic. The bottom line is that the doctor makes a small puncture in the skin, through which part of the vein is removed. This surgery is performed mainly on small vessels, and its advantages are painless (due to local anesthesia) and minimal recovery time.
A relatively young technique, a minimally invasive technique, is well known for its effectiveness as well as no pain from local anesthesia and practically no rehabilitation time.
This procedure involves inserting a special substance into the lumen - a foaming agent. This substance leads to the collapse of the walls of the vessel with their subsequent gluing. As a result, veins no longer participate in blood circulation, gradually dissolve and are replaced by connective tissue.
Sclerotherapy is mainly used to remove superficial small vessels, as well as to remove the so-called "spider veins".
The most modern and according to many experts, is an effective way to deal with varicose veins. Its essence is that a laser light path is introduced into the vein through a gap of just 2 mm. When the second is activated, it starts to emit laser waves, the temperature inside the vessel rises, and when the laser is removed, the vein walls collapse and stick together. Then the blood vessel disappears on its own and is replaced with connective tissue.
Of course, the main advantage of this procedure is that there are virtually no visible lesions on the skin, and no recovery time.
Even the slightest action leaves a trace and can have consequences. First of all, this is due to the fact that the anatomical component of the body is removed - a complete circuit. Of course, with combined vein resection, such consequences can be much more serious than a few bruises after laser clotting.
Consider the most fundamental consequences that arise periodically after a particular type of surgical treatment:
- When eliminating varicose veins by minimally invasive methods, excluding vasectomy, there is a risk of recurrence. This risk is minimal only during laser coagulation, only 5%.
- Burns - occurring after thermal action.
- Bleeding - can begin after any type of intervention, but is more likely to occur after venous resection.
- There are also cases of nerve damage, but this only refers to the professionalism of the surgeon.
Rehabilitation, i. e. postoperative rehabilitation, is required in each of the described cases, but if after coagulation this only takes place for a few days, then after combined surgeryvenectomy, which can take several weeks. For the recovery process to go smoothly and quickly, it is important to adhere to simple recommendations:
- Follow your doctor's advice carefully.
- Wear compressed clothing or an elastic band.
- If the incision has already occurred, it is important to wait for it to heal.
- After the incision has healed, it is important to restore physical activity, and regular exercise and walking will help with this.
- If your doctor prescribes any medicine, take it according to the following instructions.
- Also helpful after surgery and for prevention of varicose veins when visiting a masseur.
- Avoid serious exertion for at least 2-3 months.
If the surgery goes well and the patient complies with the doctor's instructions for recovery, the likelihood of a favorable outcome is very high. In most cases, varicose veins can be cured, but this doesn't mean the disease can't affect other vessels. For this reason, prevention of varicose veins should always be exercised if there has been a development of this pathology.