Varicose veins of lower extremities chronic condition that is characterized by the thinning of the venous wall, increased vascular lumen, and the formation of the cam files.
The diagnosis of disease of approximately 15-17% of the adult population. In adulthood, the disease is more often diagnosed in women, due to hormonal changes in the body (menopause, pregnancy, menstruation).
Varicose veins in the legs manifested an extensive clinic. Patients complain of difficulty, discomfort in the limbs, fatigue, ankle swelling, cramps at night, protruding blue veins. The pathology of the background of the inadequate treatment leads to various complications.
Causes and risk factors of varicose veins in the lower extremities
Varicose veins of the lower limbs most of the painting is the result of a genetic predisposition. Direct cause: the functional immaturity of the valves, the veins and the immaturity of the connective tissue elements of the vessels. This leads to increased load on the inside of the blood vessels and the appearance of varicose veins.
The etiology is due to innate factors, which are associated with hypercoagulability – increased coagulation. The background of the violations of formed blood clots, which violates the total flow in the legs, leads to pathological expansion of the venous lumen.
Common causes of the disease women's hormonal balance. It is based on the change in the concentration of sex hormones in the blood. Associated with beginning menopause, and pregnancy.
Causes of varicose veins on your legs:
- Mass. Obesity mechanical effects on the venous wall, are particularly pronounced in the background of the abdominal type. As a result, the patients with increased venous pressure;
- The sugar disease. As a result, the complex diseases of the metabolic processes associated with chronic high blood glucose, a relative insufficiency of insulin, decreased elasticity in the vein walls of the further extension;
- The alcohol addiction. Alcoholism, the body lacks the fluid, the blood becomes thicker, which disturb the blood circulation;
- Professional factors (a constant finding in vertical position, excessive physical activity, lack of exercise);
- Wearing uncomfortable shoes such as high heels;
- Severe disease of the cardiovascular system, manifested by circulatory failure.
Because varicose veins the legs chronic disease of the reproductive organs. In particular, inflammation of the prostate in men and the adnexa in women.
The mechanism of the disease based on the participation of the inflammatory process, the smallest blood vessels, that causes swelling and obstructs blood flow.
The symptoms of varicose veins
Varicose veins on the legs manifests itself in different symptoms. Let's start with the external changes. Thus, the most obvious sign, indicating that the appearance of the disease, this transformation the contour and shape of subcutaneous vessels of the leg. Manifested bloating, nodular thickening. Ships will be in dark colors, revealing the veins, blood vessels.
The venous leg ulcer is considered the two sides. Part of the clinicians attribute the wounds to the symptoms and other complications of the disease, attest to the last, the most advanced of the pathological process.
Classification of varicose veins on your legs
Varicose veins on the legs diagnosed more often in older women than men in this age. At a young age, the disease, the boys and girls manifested the same frequency. In accordance with the classification, the disease can be primary and secondary in nature. In the first case, the pathological changes apply to surface vessels. Violations of the structure of deep vessels do not exist.
Secondary varicose veins is a complication of abnormalities of the deep veins, that the observed negative changes in the surface vessels of the leg. This is the image that appears in the background of congenital abnormalities of the venous system, and as a consequence of phlebothrombosis.
Also of the disease a qualified clinical forms. These include varices of the lateral vessels of the lower leg, thigh, form the reticular, varicose telangiectasia. Consider these forms:
- Varicose veins side veins, sometimes as an independent disease or in combination with other diseases. Reverse venous reflux of the liquid occurs in the deep vein through the saphenous surrounding blood vessels.
- Network (reticular form) is manifested as an independent disease. Not lead to venous insufficiency is just a cosmetic error.
- Telangiectasia varicose veins are also a cosmetic error.
In recent years, the surgeons distinguish venous insufficiency idiopathic forms. It is characterized by increased venous tone, clear reason that such an infringement cannot be detected. The clinical symptoms of the pathology do not differ from the classical clinic.
Stage the extent of the varicose veins
The varicose veins in the legs varies depending on the stage fully. The facility, account should be taken of the clinic to the patient. Chronic disease several stages, which are certain differences:
|Compensation||Pain syndrome weakly expressed or not. The patients complain of a bad feeling because of the foot long. It should be noted that the presence of spider veins on the skin, sometimes manifested by swelling of the ankle, it'll go fast after the holidays.|
|Subcompensation||Visual examination of the lower limbs, the patient is seen in veins with abnormal clearance. The patients a lot of the complaints. In particular, complained about the persistent pain expander nature, fatigue, headache, of the legs. Often at night, there is twitching of the muscles, the "run goose bumps" of the skin. Swelling after a night in 90% of cases leveled independently.|
|Decompensation||The hardest stage of the varicose veins. Obvious changes in the skin. He will be too dry, hair falling off my legs. In addition, it turns out, hyper pigmentation, which is abnormal thickening of tissue just under the skin. Cracks, scratches my leg to heal for a long time can transform into sores. Swollen feet, constantly, rest, sleep won't help. The swelling usually rise higher on the leg.|
If you are a girl or guy to be the doctor with the complaint of the described symptoms, the doctor conducts a visual examination, provides, laboratory, instrumental diagnostic methods. Based on the results obtained, talking about the form, stage extent of the disease.
The degree varicose veins of the legs defined by the number. Zero (0) to the clinic is not identified, the external changes do not exist; – the puffiness, the tiredness, the extremities; II – permanent swelling is also accompanied by hyperpigmentation, abnormal seal subcutaneous tissue; III – pain, that does not pass to the swelling of the legs, trophic ulcers.
Complications of venous insufficiency
Varicose veins are a chronic, incurable disease, therefore, treatment is specific purpose– to stop disease progression, prevent complications. If the treatment assigned is incorrect, or the patient turns for help to a health professional to develop complications of the disease.
Thrombophlebitis – inflammation of the vein walls in the presence of a blood clot. The inflammatory process in the surrounding blood vessels, soft tissue. There are many forms. May be acute (30 days), subacute – duration up to six months and chronic.
Migratory thrombophlebitis is rare. It is characterized by the inflammation which occurs in various parts of Vienna quickly.
The symptoms are the following:
- Visually clear outline of the inflamed vessel.
- Acute pain, touch, the pain is getting stronger.
- Swollen knot protruding above the skin.
- The local temperature rise.
Thrombophlebitis, who has varicose veins on your legs can also lead to other complications. For example, periphlebitis inflammation of the surrounding tissues, wet gangrene, in the limbs, deep vein thrombosis. The propagation of inflammation may occur, the complications, which are beyond the limb – embolism, sepsis.
Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of varicose veins on your legs. The pathology is characterized by the formation of dense blood clot that partially or totally, of course, the blood vessel that disrupts the blood flow completely. This complication risk of death due to detachment of the thrombus.
Trophic ulcers appear in severe cases. Often connected to infection process components of the clinical picture. Wounds can affect not only the fabric, but also the deeper layers of the muscles. Heal for a long time. Necessary for a comprehensive treatment.
Varicose veins, eczema is characterized by such symptoms:
- Inflammatory reactions of the skin purple or bright red color;
- Microvesicles are formed, which are independently opened;
- Severe swelling of the legs;
- Itching, which can be observed continuously;
- The moisture that after drying of the shell;
- Abnormal thickening of the skin.
Varicose veins, eczema can go into a chronic course, the obvious hardening of the skin, subcutaneous tissue.
Upon accession infection, eczema complicated by trophic ulcers.
Conservative treatment of varicose veins on your legs
Conservative treatment of varicose veins involves both medication and wearing compression underwear. Compression stockings of different compression class is designed for the prevention and treatment of disease. Tights, stockings, socks need to choose a doctor based on specific characteristics. The proper lingerie gives the desired result.
The prescribed drugs. Perfect effective the drug, that would affect the pathological elements of the disease does not exist. Recommend the use of systemic medications – tablets, as well as the local media – gels, balms, creams, ointments.
Also prescribed physical therapy – magneto therapy, electrophoresis; special exercises. You can use folk remedies – recipes herbs can help reduce the severity of symptoms.
Sometimes it is recommended to hirudotherapy – treatment with leeches.
Methods of surgical treatment
When the conservative methods that give some results, the disease progresses, it is recommended that operation. Often used sclerotherapy. In the vein injected a special material, which is adhesive to the vessel concerned. Time is replaced by connective tissue.
Radio-frequency ablation. While the surgical intervention is performed "welding" of the blood vessels (patients) through a probe, which radiates the waves. The probe heats the walls, which leads to the stenosis. After the procedure, some time will be required to wear compression clothes.
The method chosen for the patient for surgery depends on many criteria. The doctor takes into account the stage of the disease, the patient's state of health, presence of chronic disease, which can be a advised against use of the intervention.
Other types of surgical treatment:
- Phlebectomy the doctor removes the affected veins, vessels. A little puncture in the skin introduction to the tool the hooks, which pull the boat. This technique is a combined use of surgical intervention or the use, of the laser.
- The most effective treatment considered laser coagulation of the veins of the lower limbs. The technique of operation, minimum cuts and injuries. A small incision in the skin of the ship, he received the best transactions in waves to the desired frequency. The area of effect of the observed warming. The walls melted, which allows to attack the problem.
The Stripping is performed using a small probe is inserted through the incision with an adhesive to the affected part of the vein. Cryostripping of the abnormal vessel, liquid nitrogen is introduced, which leads to the degradation region, followed, does not work.
Preventive measures is of great importance. A favorable prognosis depends on the appropriate medical board for the treatment of the patient, that you need to change your life, to strictly follow the recommendations of the phlebologist.
So, it is necessary to wear compressive underwear or bandaging the limb with an elastic bandage. The opinions of the patients, the first option is more comfortable. After the surgery, also require continuous physical activity, but without excessive stress on the body.
During sleep it is recommended that the leg should be given in the lifted position. To do this, the limb placed on a pillow or folded blanket. If your work involves constant standing or sitting, every 60-80 minutes to do some stretching to stimulate the blood circulation in the body.
The women don't wear high heels. Maximum heel height should be 5 cm patients, we have to choose comfortable shoes to abandon the clothes, which puts pressure on the limbs.
Varicose veins – a serious disease that requires multifaceted treatment approach. Only complex effects, which the drugs, compression garments, physiotherapy, physical activity, and proper nutrition leads to positive results and long-term remission.